Do you fume when something goes against your wish?
Does your blood pressure rocket when someone tells you something that you don’t like?
Firstly, anger control and management are keys to better relationships. Anger is a normal emotion of human psychology, but it is equally important to keep your anger under control. Just like any other emotion, anger too varies from person to person and the circumstances. Uncontrolled anger can lead to mental and physical stress. It also causes stress on relationships and damages your health. This may lead to Anxiety and Depression. Therefore, it is important to practice anger management exercises to control such extremes of emotions.
Here are some of the anger management tips that can help you control your anger:
Please think before you speak: We often say something out of anger and then regret it later. This is a common condition that almost everyone has faced at some point in time. Do not say things abruptly without thinking. Always take your time and think over what you are about to say.
Express your anger once you are calm: Do not say things in the heat of the moment. Once you calm down, express your views on things that are bothering you. This will help you express yourself better without hurting anyone.
Exercise: Regular exercise is one of the best tools to reduce stress. Light meditative exercises performed regularly, such as a morning jog or deep breathing, can control your anger to a great extent.
Identify the specific cause: Instead of being grumpy about things that make you angry, try to find out the root cause of the issue and eliminate it so that you don’t have to face it again. Remind yourself that anger won’t solve the problem and can only make situations worse.
Hold no grudge: Holding on to negative feelings can only hurt your own health. Learn to forgive others. Forgiving not only keeps the relationship healthy but also keeps you away from stress and negative emotions.
Practice relaxation tactics: When your temper reaches its height, put your relaxation tactics in action. A few tactics like deep breathing or repeating words to yourself like “Take it easy” or “Calm down” can actually calm you down during critical situations.
Take a timeout: Take short breaks during stressful times of your day. This helps to release some of your stress and calm you down. You may also listen to music, take a light snack or do something that you like to spend some time away from stressful conditions of your daily routine.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult the doctor get answers to your questions!
I have mulled over this topic of – Medications OR Therapy – for quite some time now. However, a question came to the mind of a medical doctor trained in psychiatry. “Why do we even have to talk about this topic?” Nevertheless, I realize after being in the field of psychiatry for more than 10 years now, it is relevant to explain this in common man’s language. Consequently, this is because of the huge stigma that goes with the subject of mental health.
What are the differences?
Moreover, it is important to note the differences or similarities of Medications or Counseling in Mental health or as such General Health care. As such, Counseling is an art. Whereas, Medicine is as much of an art as it is about science. However, both are ways of approach towards a patient that involves speaking with, building rapport and empathizing with the patient’s condition.
Nevertheless, while counseling involves different approaches by way of talk therapy using the mind as the subject and the various processes of the mind such as behavior, intellect, memory, insight, understanding, etc,. In addition, a psychiatrist would use medications in combination with counseling or in isolation depending on the time constraints that the patient load would impose.
While, we know that medications are effective in the treatment of mental health conditions, there is evidence in the scientific world that talk therapy or counseling is as effective for some mental health conditions as medications, if not better.
Depression and anxiety are two such mental health conditions. Whereas medications are helpful in the above conditions, counseling or psychotherapy is as effective. Moreover, the combination of therapy and medication being more effective than either one of them alone or in isolation is proved fact.
However, some do argue that psychotherapy is pseudoscience.
Let us examine as to which ones are on the brink and which kinds of therapy are not useful at all.
There is poor evidence in the scientific literature that therapy like psychoanalysis, dream analysis, narco analysis, and childhood experience analysis. So these are not effective treatments for any mental health condition. However, evidence for placebo or sugar pill being more effective or as effective as the above kinds of therapies exists.
However, these kinds of studies are very difficult to do. This is because each of these therapies are different in their own regard. They maybe even come across as different to different individuals. Therefore, each one can form their own opinions.
We characterize mental health by a sense of purpose or coherence in the widely chaotic world of medications or therapy.
We need to structure either therapy to make sense of this chaos – give some method to the madness. Only exposure to traumatic experiences can develop flexibility and resilience. Therefore, exposure to stress or difficult situations only teaches the human mind how to overcome these stresses or difficult situations. Currently, there is evidence that these ingrained experiences in our DNA are passed on to the next generation. While we know that humans are because of our DNA; we also know – now – that life experiences also contribute to the DNA.
Indeed, “epigenetics” is the name for this novel method of thinking. Although largely genetic, hardiness is also developed by exposure to stress and passed on to the next generation. This would give new meaning to the phrase – “survival of the fittest.”
RCTs or Randomized Controlled Trials give us evidence about the efficacy of medications. This is regarding the efficacy of many psychotropic medications i.e. the medications used in treating mental health conditions.
I also believe that there is a lot of use of these medications routinely. I have used them with patients with mental health disorders for many years. Evidently, I have practiced psychiatry here in INDIA as well as abroad. I was a resident trainee in a couple of post-graduate training programs in the United States.
However, there are cultural variables in the acceptance of these medications. Across time and geographical locations, cultural variables explain the mental health seclusion. Mental health is not a well-accepted pathology. In a sense, mental health was not important till it was recognized most recently to be treatable.
In the past mental health was considered as a curse or as a social malaise. People were institutionalized in penitentiaries or asylums and sometimes even put on the guillotine. However, this fact has rapidly changed with the onset of scientific evidence. The existence of benefits with the use of psychotherapeutic medications is immense.
Finally, now we have concluded. Firstly, therapy – either talk therapy or medication therapy, or a combination of both, is helpful in depression and anxiety. Now let us learn about a few medications used in depression.
Lastly, your psychiatrist or psychotherapist should know whether you are using only medications. Or, that you are using only therapy. Or, both as the case may be. It sometimes is the case that when one is on therapy for certain conditions. Therefore, one does not need the other kind of therapy.
I also believe that acute psychiatric crises make use of medications to tide over them. In contradiction to the popular notion, they need short-term use of medications. Most people’s belief is that such medications for mental health conditions are used for a lifetime should be changed. Other misinformation is that they cause side effects and are “harmful” to the body. This is NOT entirely true.
One should weigh the risks versus the benefits of the medications. Thus, one should only then ponder over the decision to take them or leave them. In addition, this is true with psychotherapy or talk therapy, or counseling as well. Finally, it may be best to consult your primary health caregiver for deciding what may be best for you.
Schizophrenia is a complex brain disorder, with its pathogenesis in neurodevelopmental anomalies. The 5 domains of schizophrenia include:
Positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations).
Ubiquitous cognitive deficits
Motor symptoms (dyskinesias).
Deficits in social cognition, or socio-occupational functioning.
Negative symptoms include blunted affect, alogia, avolition, asociality, amotivation, anhedonia, ideational constriction, apathy or inertia, and abulia.
Blunted affect: This refers to the decreased intensity and repertoire of emotional expressions.
Alogia: This refers to the paucity in the speech content that is evident in patients of schizophrenia.
Avolition: This refers to the deficits in initiation and maintenance of goal-directed behaviors.
Anhedonia: This is the decreased ability to experience and anticipate pleasure, or pleasurable emotions. Recent studies have pointed out that patients with schizophrenia have the ablility to enjoy the pleasurable experience. However, they display a lack of wanting to experience these pleasurable pursuits or enjoyable experiences. Consummatory hedonia is the ability to experience an emotion. Also, anticipatory hedonia is the want to experience a pleasurable pursuit. Patients with schizophrenia display anticipatory anhedonia. However, negative symptoms have not been unique to schizophrenia alone.
Classification of Negative Symptoms:
Deficits in the brain circuitry concerning reward (nucleus accumbens), motivation and pleasure are the reason for negative symptoms.
Negative symptoms are further classified into:
Enduring Primary Negative Symptoms: The enduring primary negative symptoms can consistently present over long periods of time, despite fluctuations in other aspects of the disease. These enduring primary negative symptoms constitute what is called the deficit syndrome in schizophrenia.
Transitory Secondary Negative Symptoms: Secondary negative symptoms can occur transitory in nature, fluctuate largely over the course of the illness, and abate with reduction in the other aspects of the disease.
What Causes Secondary Negative Symptoms?
These are secondary to positive symptoms. That is, if a patient hears voices commanding him not to venture out of his home, lest he is attacked by his arch nemesis, such an individual is bound to stay at home for the fear of being attacked. Such an individual will also limit his social interaction, and display paucity in his speech content. People mistake this for apathy and alogia. However, in fact it is a reflection of the aftermath of auditory hallucinations, a positive symptom.
Secondary negative symptoms are attributable to chronic social deprivation. This is evident in patients who are chronically institutionalized in asylums. Such long bouts of social isolation serve to remove all motivation in these individuals to interact with the outside world, especially at a time when they are overwhelmed by their illness, and are unable to integrate their inner perceptual experiences. Chronic institutionalization comes across as a severely under-stimulating environment.
Lastly secondary negative symptoms may be due to medications themselves. In medical terms, it is called neuroleptic-induced dysphoria. The medications which are used to treat a psychotic breakdown cause a reduction in the levels of the happy hormone serotonin, and this may produce a depression like picture. However, this is not to be confused with the post-psychotic depression that is commonly seen after a psychotic episode. Although the treatment does not differ in both these scenarios, recognition of the individual clinical scenario has important prognostic ramifications. In theory, risk of exacerbation of the psychotic symptoms exists, when the post-psychotic depression is treated with antidepressants.
Indeed, deficit syndrome or a clustering of these negative symptoms entails a poor quality of life, and impaired socio-occupational functioning.
Subsequently, individuals become unproductive, and lead a life of social isolation and deprivation.
The motivation to go out and do something beautiful, achieve a target, strive towards betterment of oneself diminishes and stops. Also, work towards a greater good of one’s community, all day to day goals in the lives of a regular individual, cease to exist.
Degree of Future Negative Symptoms:
Firstly, Among the strongest predictors of the degree of future negative symptoms is Duration of Untreated Psychosis, or DUP.
Thus, DUP refers to the time lag between the appearance of the first psychotic symptoms, and the treatment sought for these symptoms.
However, greater the duration of the untreated psychosis, greater is the future occurence of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits.
Indeed, an individual with a substantial cognitive reserve offers some protection against the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, and dementia.
Since the nature of these cognitive deficits is ubiquitous, these may be evident as early as the prodromal phase of schizophrenia.
Indeed, greater the volume of grey matter loss, greater is the cognitive deficit syndrome. Also, greater the duration of untreated psychosis, greater is the grey matter volume loss.
Psychosocial interventions: Indeed, this is as important as psychopharmacological interventions. Thus, forming support groups, and meeting at regular intervals of these groups is important. Nevertheless, these group meetings give voice to individual experiences and problems. So, thereapists give encouragement to client participation. Assessment is done of the progress so far. Therapists also ascertain the goals for the future.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Therapists aid the clients in recognizing cognitive distortions. Subsequently, they help in unlearning older maladaptive behaviors, and focusing on learning newer adaptive ones. Individualized therapy is suitable. Because, there is no one-size-fits-all treatment. Studies consistently show that individual therapy is better than group therapy in the treatment of negative symptoms.
Cognitive remediation therapy for cognitive deficits: This includes pencil-paper tasks, sudoku, crossword, computer exercises. Therapists tailor some of the exercises to focus on deficits in individual domains like attention, speed of thought processing, verbal working memory, reasoning, and social cognition.
Others: Thus, aerobic exercises help in neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and modulate neuroplasticity.
In fact, Amisulpiride and Fluoxetine treat the negative symptoms. Amisulpride increases levels of the hormone prolactin in the long run. Hyperprolactinaemia can set the precedent for osteoporosis.
However, recent studies have shown that Clozapine has the highest level of evidence in the management of negative symptoms. With Clozapine, the improvements can be visible even after 6 months of initiation of treatment.
Moreover, Clozapine trial requires regular monitoring of the White Blood Cell counts, and causes constipation, weight gain, salivation, postural hypotension, and palpitations as common side effects.
Brain Stimulation Techniques:
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Firstly, TMS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has proven to be very effective in the treatment of negative symptoms.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, it is not as effective for negative symptoms, as it is for depression and positive symptoms.
Novel Treatment Approaches:
Emerging molecular targets – These include GABAergic modulation, targeting oxytocin receptors (implicated in the social cognition deficits in schizophrenia, along with mirror neurons). Also, countering neuroinflammation by using cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors like Rofecoxib. Others include – NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) antagonists like Memantine, Glycine-reuptake inhibitors like Bitopetrin, and Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2/3 agonists like Pomaglumetad. Memantine, Bitopetrin and Pomaglumetad come under the purview of glutamatergic modulation.
There is definitely hope for those afflicted with the deficit syndrome, with researchers identifying a plethora of molecular targets.
Fits, Seizures, Epilepsy is a form of chronic disorder and it is characterized by recurrent seizures and importantly does have treatment options. The episodes of epileptic seizures may differ from person to person. These seizures could be a result of genetic disorder or a result of trauma or stroke. During a seizure, a patient may also experience symptoms of neurological disorders and sometimes lose consciousness. However, treatment is available.
Medical help for fits seizures or epilepsy i.e. treatment
Medications cannot cure seizures entirely. However, proper medicines help in eliminating recurrent seizures. These medicines stabilize the electrical activity within the brain preventing seizures.
How effective is the medication treatment for fits seizures or epilepsy?
The success of controlling seizures using medicines depends on the type and severity of the epilepsy. Medicines for epilepsy are usually very effective and may fully keep seizures under control. However, brain problems can cause seizures. In such cases treatment may be more difficult. Usually, epilepsy medicines can control seizures for a long period of time when they are taken regularly.
Need for medical help
The decision about when to start medicines for epilepsy is a tricky one. This is because a first seizure cannot confirm whether a person has an on-going epilepsy problem. A second seizure may occur after many years or may not happen at all. Prediction of seizures is also quite difficult.
The severity of seizures also indicates when to start medicines for treatment. In case a first seizure is quite severe, medication should be started at once. Some people have very mild seizures even though they may be recurring in nature, and medication can be avoided in this situation.
All the pros and cons must be thought over before starting medications for the treatment of fits or epilepsy. It is advisable to wait for a second seizure and then start medications for treatment. You should always consult a doctor to know when you need to start taking medicines to treat the condition.
For making the most out of the medicines to control seizures, you should follow certain steps:
You must take medications exactly as your doctor has prescribed.
Before switching to generic versions of your medicines or before taking other prescribed medicines, you must consult your doctor.
You should never stop taking the medicines.
In case you experience enhanced depression, mood swings and suicidal thoughts, you should talk to your doctor immediately.
In case you have migraine, you should let your doctor know so that he can prescribe you anti-epileptic medicines, which also prevent migraines.
Firstly, talking about vaginismus, a depressed woman comes to mind. It is not only the cyclical changes in physiological and psychological terms that women have to endure and become resilient. Women also need to change to external circumstances. Hence, they are probably designed to be flexible enough for change. However, depression can get the better of even the so-called toughest woman. The good news is that it is something that Psychiatrists can treat to the fullest degree. Among the various symptoms of depression that are easily modified with medications, sexual symptoms are rarely discussed. However, one symptom rarely discussed is sexual problems or disinterest due especially to physical causes resulting in depression.
A specific sexual disturbance, especially during the initiation of first sexual contact or encounter, is dyspareunia. The female version of which is vaginismus, which could be more common in depressed women. Various successful vaginismus treatments do not require interventions. These include medications, surgical operations, psychotherapeutic measures, nor any other complex interventional procedures.
Vaginismus is treatable and the success rates are quite high.
Among the most effective treatment approaches in depressed women with vaginismus is pelvic floor control exercises, commonly known as kegel exercises. This, along with insertion or dilation training using objects specific to the sexual treatment procedures, is helpful. Resulting in pain elimination techniques using psychotherapeutic measures like exposure and response prevention is helpful. Likewise, transition steps with incremental tolerance to pain and enjoyment of the act are taught. Also, exercises designed to help women identify, express, and resolve any contributing emotional components are helpful. They either are from past experiences or from ill-informed sexual learning experiences, which are mostly hearsay.
Women can do their treatments in the comfort of their homes. Thus, allowing a woman to work at her own pace in privacy or cooperation with her health care provider. The sexual pain, tightness, and penetration difficulties due to vaginismus in depressed women are completely treatable. In addition, they fully overcome any remaining pain or discomfort with time.
Women experiencing pain or tightness during sexual activities can expect great benefits. However, if the pain is associated with penile penetration problems, including unconsummated relationships, they can expect a high degree of resolution of vaginismus. This is true even in depressed women. This would allow for full pain-free and adequate intercourse to the satisfaction of both partners.
Vaginismus treatment in depressed women and exercises follow a manageable, step-by-step process ~
Step 1 –
Understanding Vaginismus. Step 1 provides an overview of vaginismus and how symptoms can arise from it. Symptoms include sexual pain, tightness, burning sensations, or penetration difficulties that may result from it. Women start their sexual endeavors with this approach. The women become proactive about their sexual health. This is because understanding vaginismus is fundamental to the process of overcoming it. Topics also include obtaining a solid diagnosis, treatment methods, relationship issues, pelvic/relaxation techniques, conditioned responses, and muscle memories.
Step 2 –
Sexual History Review & Treatment Strategies. A balanced approach helps women review and analyze their history. Exercises help identify and evaluate any events, emotions, or triggers contributing to vaginismus sexual pain or penetration problems. Checklists and detailed exercises map out a woman’s sexual history and pelvic pain events, working toward appropriate treatment strategies. Emotional reviews help detail any negative events, feelings, or memories that may collectively contribute to involuntary pelvic responses. Topics also include blocked or hidden memories. In addition, how to move forward when there have been traumatic events in a woman’s past.
Step 3 –
Sexual Pain Anatomy. Women often lack complete information about their body’s sexual anatomy, function, and the causes of pelvic pain and penetration problems. Confusion regarding problems with inner vaginal areas and vaginal muscles frequently leads to misdiagnosis and frustration. Step 3 educates about these sexual body parts, emphasizing their role in sexual pain and penetration issues. Topics include how to distinguish what kind of pain or discomfort is normal with first-time or ongoing sex. Also, what physical changes occur during arousal to orgasm cycles in the context of sexual pain or penetration problems. In this step, explanations about the Anatomy areas such as the hymen and inner vulva. These areas are demystified (for example, there are six diagrams of hymen varieties to help distinguish hymen problems).
Step 4 –
Vaginal Tightness & The Role Of Pelvic Floor Muscles.Female sexual pain and penetration difficulties typically involve some degree of involuntary tightening of the pelvic floor. This step focuses on the role of pelvic floor muscles, especially the pubococcygeus (PC) muscle group. This explains in great detail how triggering the PC once continues their involuntary tightness. This continues with increasing attempts at intercourse. Effective vaginismus treatment focuses on retraining the pelvic floor to eliminate involuntary muscle reactions that produce tightness or pain. Learning how to identify, selectively control, exercise and retrain the pelvic muscles is a trick. This is to reduce pain and alleviate penetration tightness and difficulties is an important step in vaginismus treatment.
Step 5 –
Insertion Techniques. Allowing initial entry without pain for women with painful penetration is the purpose of this technique. In this step, women practice pubococcygeus (PC) muscle control techniques. Women allow the entry of a small object (cotton swab, tampon, or finger) into their vagina. Thus, gradually working completely under their control and pace. The step helps in any previous closure of the entrance to the vagina and prevention of penetration by involuntary muscle contractions. Women begin to take full control over their pelvic floor. They subsequently learn how to flex and relax the pelvic floor at will, eliminating unwanted tightness and allowing entry.
Step 6 –
Graduated Vaginal Insertions: However, when used properly, vaginal dilators are effective tools to help further eliminate pelvic tightness due to vaginismus. Also, dilators provide a substitute means to trigger pelvic muscle reactions. Thus, the effective dilator exercises in Step 6 teach women certain techniques. However, these include overriding involuntary contractions and relaxing the pelvic floor to respond correctly to sexual penetration. Subsequently, graduated vaginal insertion exercises allow women to transition comfortably. Hence, this is to set the stage where they are ready for intercourse without pain or discomfort.
Step 7 –
Sensate Focus & Techniques For Couples To Reduce Pelvic Floor Tension. Helping with the transition to pain-free intercourse, this step explains sensate focus techniques. This is for couples to use to reduce pelvic floor tension and increase intimacy. Couples begin to work together during this step as exercises teach how to practice sensate focus (controlled sensual touch) successfully. In addition, they prepare for pain-free intercourse using techniques from earlier steps. The exercises build trust and understanding. In addition, they assist in the process of adjusting to controlled intercourse without pain.
Step 8 –
Pre-Intercourse Readiness Exercises Finalizing preparations for couples to transition to fully pain-free intercourse, this step completes pre-intercourse readiness—couples review and practice techniques that eliminate pelvic floor tension and prepare to transition to full intercourse. Preparing ahead of time is the key to this step. This is to manage, control, and eliminate pain or penetration difficulties. Hence, the exercises assist with the final transition to pain-free intercourse.
Step 9 –
Making The Transition To Intercourse. Step 9 explains the techniques used to eliminate pain and penetration difficulties while transitioning to normal intercourse. This section includes many troubleshooting topics of great use. Examples include, such as positions to use to maximize control and minimize pain, tips to ensure more comfortable intercourse, etc.
Step 10 –
Full Pain-Free Intercourse & Pleasure Restoration. The final step toward overcoming vaginismus includes penis entry with movement and freedom from any pain or tightness. To educate, build sexual trust and intimacy are the goals of Step 10. They help complete the transition to full sexual intercourse free of pain. Couples can begin to enjoy pleasure with intercourse, initiate family planning, and move forward to live a life free from vaginismus.
Love and Relationships can be difficult initially for any couple, and having some knowledge about sex can help immensely in performing sexual intercourse.
When a man and a woman have sexual intercourse or simply sex – where a man’s penis enters the woman’s vagina – it is called vaginal sex. Please find out more about what it is, why people do it and how to do it safely. Sleep Hygiene has a lot to do with Sexual Health.
“Should I have vaginal sex or sexual intercourse?“
Deciding whether to have sex is a very personal thing, and there is no rule to say whether you ‘should.’ The main things to consider are whether it feels right and whether you and your partner are both sure.
Vaginal sexual intercourse usually starts when a man and a woman get sexually excited from kissing, stroking, caressing, rubbing, and touching each other. You’ll often know you’re getting aroused (which means your body is preparing itself for sexual intercourse) from certain physical signs:
for women, the vagina (the sexual opening between the legs) begins to moisten
men get an erection, which means their penis will get bigger and harden.
The importance of foreplay (before sex or sexual intercourse)
Try not to rush things for sexual intercourse. The best approach is to enjoy each other’s bodies and make sure you’re relaxed with one another before sex – this is called foreplay,and it’s an equally important part of sex as intercourse itself. It’s also perfectly ok not to go any further than this stage. Many couples enjoy having foreplay for a long time before they move on to having vaginal sex.
If you are both ready to have vaginal sex, foreplay must last for long enough. If the woman is not sexually excited enough, then her vagina will not become lubricated, and it will be difficult for the man’s penis to enter.
How does vaginal sex work?
When you are both aroused and ready to have sex, it helps if you use your hand to guide the penis into the vagina. Take your time, and don’t worry if it takes a few goes to guide it in properly – this is very normal, especially when you are both getting used to each other’s bodies.
Once the penis is inside, you can move your body so that the penis pushes into the vagina and then pulls partly out again. Do what comes naturally and feels good – being slow and gentle is a good idea to start with as you can both make sure one another is comfortable.
What about different positions?
One common position involves the woman lying down, with the man lying or sitting on top (also called the ‘missionary position’). Alternatively, the woman can be on top – or you can both lie on your sides. It is probably easiest to choose one of these positions if you have sexual intercourse for the first time. As you get to know each other’s bodies better, you can experiment with different positions that work for you both.
After a while, you might find certain movements, positions, and ways of touching that lead to one or both of you having an orgasm. This is also called ‘coming’ or ‘climaxing.’ Don’t be too concerned if this doesn’t happen straight away or at all. It takes time to get to know what works for you sexually. And for your partner as well. And sex can be enjoyable whether you climax or not.
Will it hurt – and will the woman bleed?
It can take a bit of time to get used to the sensation of sex. And, some women can find it a little uncomfortable or painful at first. Taking things slowly and using good water-based lubrication can help.
If it’s a woman’s first time having sex, she may bleed a little. This is generally nothing to worry about. Since it’s a sign that her hymen (a fragile piece of skin that partially covers the entrance to the vagina) has broken, sometimes, a woman’s hymen will have been broken through activities—for example, horse riding or through using tampons. So, not all virgins bleed the first time they have sex.
If you continue to bleed every time you have sex, it’s a good idea to speak to a healthcare professional. This is for reassurance and to check. It’s nothing to worry about.
Being safe and sure
Knowing how sex works can help you to feel more relaxed and ready to have sex. However, being clued up about contraception and protection is just as important. If you aren’t, you will put yourself (and your partner) at risk. This includes unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and HIV.
There are many STIs that you can get through unprotected vaginal sex. These are chlamydia, herpes, or HIV, and they can happen as a result of just having sex once. Using condoms is the only way to be sure that you’re both properly protected is to always.
If you’ve had unprotected sex make sure you seek healthcare advice as soon as possible. This is to access emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy and perhaps post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent HIV infection.
Talking to your partner about protection before you start having sex will help things go more smoothly. This can be embarrassing, but it’s an important part of having sex. Additionally, if you find it difficult to discuss, then it is a sign you aren’t ready to start having sex yet. That’s fine. However, remember that there are many ways to enjoy being together and explore your sexual feelings until the time is right. If you continue to experience problems and affect your family life consult an expert in the field.
It often becomes exasperating and excruciating if we find ourselves feeling unloved frequently. This may lead to much confusion, especially with love and relationships, and possibly lead to numerous fights or conflicts, resulting in both feeling worn out and bleak.
Despite being aware that your partner does love you and still feeling unloved, that’s when you should know that other major factors are playing a role behind it. Not the least of which is sexual intercourse.
The consequence of feeling unloved perpetually leads to inferior self-esteem. This can further result in you becoming clingy, not self-reliant, and other individuality traits which can propel any probable lover to become restless. Here are some ways which you can follow to rekindle your love life and relationships:
ALTERING YOUR PERCEPTION
The foremost thing that can help is changing perspective and diversely looking at things. Hunting for the positive side, retrieving self-esteem, and being strong enough without seeking anyone’s validation can also help.
Building a strong and mature relationship needs both verbal and non-verbal communication. In a relationship, only speaking your heart out won’t help. Listening and paying attention while your partner speaks is also essential.
One should not lie and cheat on his or her partner in a relationship. Communicating whatever comes to mind and spilling it can hurt the other person’s feelings. In a relationship, both partners need to understand each other.
SPEAKING YOUR MIND OUT
Keeping secrets from each other while in a relationship can deteriorate the situation. Disregarding one’s feelings, emotions and discussing the problem is a better idea than keeping things to oneself.
Try to take some time for yourself, give your life and connection a profound thought, and shape things out to make your relationship stronger. It will further boost your wish to explore intimacy. Loving yourself is also needed in place of thinking only about your partner’s happiness.
Why feel unloved in your relationship unnecessarily when you are actually loved? Free yourself from this illusion by functioning at understanding, considering, and knowing your partner better!
If you have questions or concerns AND want to confidentially/privately talk about your problems, speak with a professional mental health provider.
We discuss how to increase sexual energy for men naturally.
What are Kegels?
Firstly, a Kegel is an exercise specifically designed to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles. This can help you improve erection angle, improve erection quality, give more intense orgasms, indirectly enlarge your penis, cure incontinence. And much more, thus improving sex !!! Hence, this is one of the most important ways on how to Increase Sexual Energy for Men. These are some of the many ways to improve many sexual problems.
Firstly, Kegels were invented by Dr. Arnold Kegel, an Obstetrician, in the 1940s. Although developed for women, it became clear Kegels are also great for male sexual health !!!
Find your PC (pubococcygeus) muscle:
While urinating, contract your muscles, so you either slow or stop the flow of urine. Indeed, those are your pelvic floor muscles !!!
4 Simple Steps:
Multi-Orgasmic Men? YES! However, with strong pelvic floor muscles and practice, men CAN become multi-orgasmic !!!
Don’t just Kegel
In addition, combine your Kegel with other penis exercises like jells and stretches to maximize your results !!!
Firstly, have your partner do Kegel too. In fact, you’ll both enjoy a harder erection and a tighter vagina. Here we have discussed how to increase sexual energy in men !!!
In addition, within the framework of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions, and system at all stages of life. However, UN agencies claim sexual and reproductive health includes physical as well as psychological well-being vis-a-vis sexuality.
Therefore, reproductive health implies that people can have a responsible, satisfying, and safer sex life. In addition, they must have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. Therefore, one interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and have access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable birth control methods. Men should thus, know how to increase sexual energy in themselves.
Also, access to appropriate health care of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women going through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
Indeed, individuals do face inequalities in reproductive health services. However, inequalities vary based on socioeconomic status, education level, age, ethnicity, religion, and resources available in their environment. Men are more likely NOT to access healthcare services, especially to increase their sexual energy.
Finally, it is possible, for example, that low-income individuals lack the resources for appropriate health services and the knowledge to know what is appropriate for maintaining reproductive health.
Firstly, a migraine headache is characterized by a severe headache usually affecting one side of the head. In addition, there are other symptoms along with headaches like nausea/vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound. Nevertheless, some patients experience neurological phenomena like changes in vision, temporary loss of sensation, and altered sensation, a phenomenon known as an aura (flashes of light, zigzag patterns, bright spots, tingling in the arms, and the legs). A migraine headache can last for 2 to 3 days. Migraine? We do magic!!
The symptoms depend on the stage of a migraine attack. The stages of a migraine attack can be:
Prodrome, Aura, Headache or attack, and Postdrome.
Prodrome: One to two days before the migraine attack, the patient may experience;
Constipation and frequent thirst and urination.
In case of an aura (during or before a migraine), there may be visual, motor, speech, and sensory illusions and disturbances such as,
Loss of vision.
A strange sensation of needles pricking an arm or a leg.
One side of the body becomes weak and numb.
There are visual illusions such as the appearance of flashes of light, zigzag patterns, bright spots.
There is a problem with hearing and speaking.
However, in some cases, there may be a hemiplegic migraine (the limb becomes weak).
During a Migraine Attack (lasts for 4 to 72 hours), there may be
Throbbing pain on either one or both sides of the head
Blurred vision, light-headedness.
Nausea and vomiting
Sensitivity to light and sound
Sensitivity to touch and smell (though rare)
Finally, in Post-drome (after a migraine), there can be
A person may be sensitive to light and sound.
Dizziness and weakness
Indeed, an amalgamation of environmental and genetic factors may be responsible for migraines. Therefore, triggers vary for each patient:
Stress and extreme physical exertion
Caffeinated drinks and habit-forming beverages
Salty and processed foods
Altered sleeping habits
Hormonal alterations in women (Constant fluctuation in the level of estrogen)
Oral contraceptives and certain vasodilators (nitroglycerin)
Preservatives like MSG (monosodium glutamate) and Aspartame (sweetener)
Sunshine, certain odors, travel, etc., can trigger a migraine.
Treatment and Prevention:
Medicines under supervision to abort an attack of migraine and special medicines to stop attacks as well as to prevent a migraine from recurring, also known as maintenance therapy
Finally, Lifestyle changes are helpful to decrease attacks:
Avoid your trigger for a migraine.
Follow regular sleep-wake cycle.
Regular exercise, meditation.
Avoidance of caffeine-containing and other habit-forming beverages.
Worry fear anxiety are all a normal part of life, and can even be helpful in some instances. We often worry about things that are present in our lives, such as finances, work, and family, and this worry has the potential to help us make good decisions in these areas. This is normal and is not a cause of concern as this kind of worry leads to solutions to problems.
It is possible, however, for worry to become more confronting, emotionally, than these everyday worries. If you are experiencing worries that are excessive, uncontrollable, or irrational, and have been experiencing these worries for an extended period of time, you may be suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder, or GAD.
If you feel that your worrying is out of your control and that you need some help understanding and dealing with it, this information on worry and Generalized Anxiety Disorder will help
While most people worry about everyday things such as family, work pressures, health, or money, worrying about these kinds of things do not typically get in the way of everyday functioning. However, people with GAD find that their worry is excessive (they worry more about a situation or scenario than others do or “blow things out of proportion”), difficult to control, and pervasive (they worry fear or anxiety begins about a specific event but then extends to all similar or related events). GAD often results in an occupational social and physical impairment, as well as emotional distress.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
There is a 10% chance of a person developing Generalized Anxiety Disorder at some point in their life, and 3% of the population will be diagnosed with GAD in a given year. This disorder is one of the most common diagnoses at the primary care level. The age of onset of GAD is quite variable, ranging from twenty to forty years of age, but most report that they have always been worriers and that worrying is only now becoming a handicap. Females are more likely to develop GAD than males.
GAD tends to develop gradually and fluctuate in severity over time. Although most people appear to be symptomatic for the majority of the time since the onset of the disorder, about one-quarter of people with GAD exhibit periods of remission (three months or longer without symptoms).
Research has identified various core issues in the development and maintenance of GAD. For example, intolerance of uncertainty about the future has been identified as one of the core issues in GAD. The role of “worry about worry, in which people believe that worry is uncontrollable or inherently dangerous, is also central. Excessive worry can also be a way of avoiding emotional processing related to fear, and the role of emotion dysregulation and experiential avoidance may also be central to GAD.
Signs and Symptoms
So what are the signs of Anxiety which result in GAD that requires you to consult a psychiatrist to find the right solution in terms of therapy with medications or counseling or both:
1. Excessive worrying that lasts for months, plus some or all of the following 2. Feeling restless, keyed up, or on edge most of the time 3. Being easily tired 4. Having difficulty concentrating, or having your mind go blank. 5. Being irritable. 6. Having tense or sore muscles. 7. Having difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or having restless, unsatisfying sleep. 8. Over-planning 9. Excessive list making 10. Seeking reassurance from others
Insomnia and Sleep Difficulties. Can it affect your Emotions?
Firstly, there is a distinct relationship between sleeping disorders and your emotional health. In fact, both influence each other. However, insomnia and sleep difficulties, are common sleeping disorders, is generally caused due to stress and tension.
In fact, depression and anxiety also account for insomnia. Indeed, it has been proven by research. In fact, people who experience sleeplessness or cases of insomnia are at a higher risk of depression and similar psychiatric disorders.
In fact, insomnia and sleep difficulties are an important factor which cause depression, and many people affected by it commit suicide. However, researchers have found dysfunctional activity in the area of the brain where emotions are processed and regulated. In fact, among people with insomnia, their study explains the mechanism by which insomnia affects and influences emotions. In addition, in people, this leads to depression and other disorders.
The ways in which insomnia and sleep difficulties affect your emotions:
In fact, there is a clear difference in the brain activities of people with insomnia. However, this is when compared with normal people who get good sleep. In fact, there is usually a great difference between the activities of the amygdala. Indeed, these are neurons in the temporal lobe of the brain. Thus, the amygdala is very important in regulation and processing of emotions.
Signs and symptoms or insomnia or sleep difficulties
Insomnia disrupts the ability of the brain to process negative emotions.
Nevertheless, insomnia causes neural change and problems with regulating emotions.
Insomnia disables the ability to judge or sense any kind of emotion by looking at a person’s face. However, it is difficult to judge emotions such as anger and sadness in people who have insomnia. This impairment occurs more in women.
Insomnia and similar sleeping disorders affect our inhibition and disrupt our impulse control mechanism. An insomniac person is likely to develop increased impulsiveness to negative stimuli.
People who have insomnia develop a perception of negative stuff and perceive most things negatively, however, rather than looking at the bright side, which a normal person tends to do. Insomniacs are characterized by a negative mood and are pessimistic.
A sleep-deprived or insomniac patient shows greater activity around the limbic area of the brain. Emotional regulation and processing undertake in the limbic area.
A person who has insomnia develops a cranky personality. The patient is in an irritable mood. The slightest and pettiest of circumstances trigger him. However, insomnia characterizes other symptoms. Examples include swinging moods, high temper, and general fatigue due to lack of sleep.
As a parent, you feel a special deep panic when you realize that your child—your beautiful, clever, funny child, who regularly surprises you with precocious bons mots, who built an ingenious bow out of tubing and rubber bands that can shoot a chopstick across the living room with remarkable accuracy—is having trouble learning to read.
Meanwhile, all the other kids appear to be breezing along, polishing off Harry Potter books while your child stumbles over the difference between “how” and “now.” You don’t want to be one of those hysterical parents who gets all crazy about every little developmental bump in the road, but, hey, your kid can’t really read yet, and the others can. In your darker moments you feel the desolate urge to ratchet down your ambitions for your child from valedictorian to graduating at all. So, How to Help Your Child with reading disorders Learn to Read…
Such fears may be exaggerated, but they’re not irrational. Reading ability does predict school achievement and success (which is, of course, related to income, health, and other factors), and reading gains ever greater importance beyond school, as more jobs are now based on information and technology. Failure to read places significant limits on how one fares in other parts of life. And a lot of people never do learn to read well: Approximately 40 percent of fourth grade children in the United States lack basic reading skills; 20 percent of all graduating high school seniors are classified as functionally illiterate (meaning that their reading and writing skills are insufficient for ordinary practical needs) ; and about 42 million adults in the United States cannot read. So, you’re not nuts to take a reading problem seriously.
Now for some perspective. First, let’s take a moment to recognize that compared with the development of oral language, the acquisition of reading is unnatural. Speech and the ability to understand speech can be considered the result of a natural process in the sense that the requisite skills emerge without formal training. Several species of animal employ sounds such as clicking, whistles, song, or foot tapping in a fashion that constitutes focused and targeted communication (and dolphins actually seem to have names for one another). Before children can speak fluently, they move from sounds to words, words to phrases, and so on, acquiring their growing expertise from exposure to the speech around them. They then make efforts to speak, with little formal guidance. By contrast, children must be taught to read.
The good news for kids who have trouble reading is that while a deficiency in reading may look like an across-the-board failure, it is often a local problem in just one or two of the components that add up to the ability to read. Reading, like golfing or playing the guitar, is not one big global skill but a constellation of many smaller ones. When we read fluently, the little skills weave together so seamlessly that they look like a single expertise.
There are components to – How to Help Your Child Learn to Read – It is important to look at the components because a holdup in the development of any single one may be at fault in a child’s poor performance in reading. If we can identify the component that’s not doing its share, we can do a great deal to improve reading.
The components that make up reading are interrelated and overlapping, but distinguishable:
Vocabulary: knowing the meanings of words. A child’s comprehension of what is read depends on this. Better vocabulary better prepares a child for reading.
Comprehension: understanding and being able to interpret what is read, connecting the printed words and sentences with human experience.
Phonological awareness: identifying and manipulating units of oral language, such as words, syllables, onsets, and rimes. Children who have phonological awareness can recognize that sentences are made up of words, words can be broken down into sounds and syllables, sounds can be deleted from words to make new words, and different words can begin or end with the same sound or have the same middle sound(s).
Decoding: breaking down words into their constituent sounds and building words from those sounds. This begins with blending sounds (“puh” plus “al” equals “pal”) and extends into sounding out words the child has never seen before by recognizing the sounds of letters and syllables that form them.
Fluency: reading smoothly with accuracy, speed, and expression that conveys the sense of what’s being read.
As a parent with no particular professional expertise in teaching literacy, there’s a lot you can do on the level of normal play and routine home life to promote reading—and without turning it into a chore or a high-pressure struggle.
To start with:
Parents can begin working on the components of reading when their child is still an infant and extend the process throughout childhood. To begin with, the more the child knows about oral language, the better. When she begins to read, she will draw upon a reserve of expertise that she first built up as a speaker and listener: vocabulary, comprehension, phonological awareness, connecting words to things.
With infants, talk to the child and encourage him to make a range of talk like sounds. Begin reading to the child, and keep books around, including some within the child’s reach. Do what you can to make reading fun, enjoyable, peaceful, and engaging, setting the stage for what comes next at the toddler level. You are building command of sounds, love of reading, and an appreciation of the value and importance of books.
With toddlers and pre-schoolers, it helps to connect reading to some routine such as bed time, nap time, or a pre or after meal lull. Select topics she likes; let the child select books for you to read. Get in the habit of activities or games that rhyme and otherwise play with sounds: songs, jingles, made-up phrases (e.g., “Billy is silly” to catch the rhyming sounds, “Sally sounds silly” to catch the sound of the initial S). Nursery rhymes are especially rich in words, rhyming, and other fundamentals. Talk about a greater range of subjects, even very mundane ones—like pointing to the parts of a car or animal in an illustration and labelling them.
As you read, stop and ask a gentle question: “What do you think Babar is thinking here?” or “What do you think will happen next?” These are great for comprehension. If the question is too difficult, offer a little more guidance by attaching a statement: “I’ll bet Babar is a little lonely. What do you think would make him feel better?” Also, you can encourage your child to experiment with writing, which helps reading because she uses sounds to try to write the word. You might see the child write “sn” for “sun,” a great start that shows awareness of sounds and the breakdown of words into sounds.
How to Help Your Child Learn to Read:
As your child continues in elementary school and begins to work hard during the school day on reading, it’s a good idea to continue reading with and to him, mixing in casual writing practice (some kids will go for the idea of alternating entries in a journal with a parent) and talking over dinner and in other family settings about what the child has read.
If there’s a series of books that speaks to one of your child’s enthusiasms, helping him get into that series will allow him to become familiar with continuing characters and engage with a larger story, which makes even new books seem familiar.
Keep a dictionary around and easily accessible, and use it once in a while. Thus, inviting your child to do this with you. The dictionary not only reinforces vocabulary and comprehension, it helps your child decode words. Hence, by showing that they are composed of syllables that can be sounded out.
Make up word games to play while driving or in a store. “Think of words that sound like snow” is good for a first or second grader. However, you can work up to more complicated games for older children. If you make the play competitive (if your family is into that), please resist the temptation. The temptation to rattle off 50 words in a row and then do your special taunting wiggly victory dance.
And, of course, continue to show by your actions. Not just your pronouncements – that reading is engaging, relevant, and a path to fresh experiences. Keep books around where your child can pick them up in the natural course of things. And don’t forget to pick up a book yourself. Model the desired intimacy with books; don’t just preach it.
You can’t add becoming a fulltime reading tutor to the already fulltime demands of parenting. Nonetheless, children will vary in interest, ability, and attention. So, you’ll inevitably have to select just a few of the many possible activities to promote reading skills. In general, go for regularity—a little almost every day. And, as part of a routine that links reading to the more relaxed moments in the day. Rather than a Shakespeare marathon one Saturday a month. That is How to Help Your Child Learn to Read.
And when setting priorities, bear in mind that two activities are clearly the most critical:
Firstly, read aloud to the child. So, it shows that reading is important, part of everyday life, and fun. Also, it allows you to model the basic component skills. However, it’s fine to read the same books over and over, as many children like to do. Research indicates that repeated readings help a child to integrate words better; comprehend meaning; and connect sounds, words, and meaning. Even on the 50th time through the same story, interact during the reading to bring the child into the activity. “What is Pooh doing? What do you think is in the jar?”
Secondly, help the child understand that letters are related to sounds and that words can break down into sounds. Finally, the child’s reading will advance by being able to sound out words, not by memorizing individual words. There are alphabet books to help you work with your child to connect letters to sounds. In the middle of reading, stop and sound out a word. “Let’s sound this out together: Err … un. Run! He’s getting ready to run.”
Reading may be important and complex and very scary when your child has trouble with it. However, parents should take heart. And remember that mundane low-pressure practice during games and other activities with you can make an enormous difference. Even a slightly increased sensitivity to breaking down sounds or rhyming may help. Also, a slightly heightened familiarity with books and motivation to engage with them, can provide a significant boost at school. Reading preparation is at the top of the list of factors that make a difference in school achievement. Such preparation need not – and should not – feature threats, severity, and drudgery. Instead, help your child to read by doing what you do anyway. This includes, playing with him, talking with her – in a slightly more purposeful manner. How to Help Your Child Learn to Read may be difficult. Indeed, you may need a school counselor or a child psychiatrist.
Inattention means a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized, and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.
Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity.
Impulsivity means a person makes hasty actions that occur at the moment without first thinking about them and that may have a high potential for harm, or a desire for immediate rewards, or an inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.
Signs and Symptoms of ADHD
Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are the key behaviors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. There are many types of ADHD. Some people with ADHD only have problems with one of the behaviors, while others have inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Most children have the combined type of ADHD.
In preschool, the most common Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptom is hyperactivity.
It is normal to have some inattention, unfocused motor activity, and impulsivity, but for people with ADHD, these behaviors:
are more severe
occur more often
interfere with or reduce the quality of how they function socially, at school, or in a job
Inattention in ADHD
People with symptoms of inattention may often:
Overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities
Have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading
Not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
Not follow through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace or start tasks but quickly lose focus and get easily side-tracked
Have problems organizing tasks and activities, such as what to do in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, having messy work and poor time management, and failing to meet deadlines
Avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms, or reviewing lengthy papers.
Lose things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones
Be easily distracted by unrelated thoughts or stimuli
Be forgetful in daily activities, such as chores, errands, returning calls, and keeping appointments
Hyperactivity-Impulsivity in ADHD
People with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may often:
Fidget and squirm in their seats
Leave their seats in situations when staying seated is expected, such as in the classroom or the office.
Run or dash around or climb in situations where it is inappropriate or, in teens and adults, often feel restless
Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly.
Be constantly in motion or “on the go,” or act as if “driven by a motor.”
Blurt out an answer before a question has been completed, finish other people’s sentences, or speak without waiting for a turn in the conversation
Have trouble waiting for his or her turn
Interrupt or intrude on others, for example, in conversations, games, or activities
Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:
This requires a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or child psychiatrist with expertise in ADHD. For a person to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity must be chronic or long-lasting, impair the person’s functioning, and cause the person to fall behind normal development for his or her age. The doctor will also ensure that any ADHD symptoms are not due to another medical or psychiatric condition. Most children with ADHD receive a diagnosis during the elementary school years. For an adolescent or adult to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms need to have been present before age 12.
Difficulties for Parents:
ADHD symptoms can appear as early as between the ages of 3 and 6 and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can be mistaken for emotional or disciplinary problems or missed entirely in quiet, well-behaved children, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Adults with undiagnosed ADHD may have a history of poor academic performance, problems at work, or difficult or failed relationships.
ADHD symptoms can change over time as the personages. In young children with ADHD, hyperactivity-impulsivity is the most predominant symptom. As a child reaches elementary school, inattention symptoms may become more prominent and cause the child to struggle academically. In adolescence, hyperactivity seems to lessen and may show more often as feelings of restlessness or fidgeting, but inattention and impulsivity may remain. Many adolescents with ADHD also struggle with relationships and antisocial behaviors. Inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity tend to persist into adulthood.
Risk Factors for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:
Scientists are not sure what causes Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Like many other illnesses, several factors can contribute to ADHD, such as:
Use of habit-forming substances or beverages during pregnancy
Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy
Exposure to environmental toxins, such as high levels of lead, at a young age
Low birth weight
ADHD is more common in males than females, and females with ADHD are more likely to have problems primarily with inattention. Other conditions, such as learning disabilities, anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, depression, and substance abuse, are common in ADHD.
Treatment and Therapies
While there is no cure for ADHD, currently available treatments can help reduce symptoms and improve functioning. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.
ADHD medications reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity for many people and improve their ability to focus, work, and learn. The medication also may improve physical coordination. Sometimes psychiatrists or developmental pediatricians must try several different medications or dosages before finding the right one that works for a particular person. Anyone taking medications must be monitored closely and carefully by their prescribing doctor.
The most common type of medication used for treating ADHD is called a “stimulant.” Although it may seem unusual to treat ADHD with a medication that is considered a stimulant, it works because it increases the brain chemicals dopamine and norepinephrine, which play essential roles in thinking and attention.
Under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe. However, there are risks and side effects, especially when misused or taken more than the prescribed dose. For example, stimulants can raise blood pressure and heart rate and increase anxiety. Therefore, a person with other health problems, including high blood pressure, seizures, heart disease, glaucoma, liver or kidney disease, or an anxiety disorder, should tell their doctor before taking a stimulant.
Talk with a doctor if you see any of these side effects while taking stimulants: decreased appetite, sleep problems, tics (sudden, repetitive movements or sounds); personality changes, increased anxiety and irritability, stomach-aches headaches
A few other ADHD medications are non-stimulants. These medications take longer to start working than stimulants and improve focus, attention, and impulsivity in a person with ADHD. Doctors may prescribe a non-stimulant:
when a person has bothersome side effects from stimulants;
when a stimulant was not effective;
or in combination with a stimulant to increase effectiveness.
Although not approved specifically for treating ADHD, some antidepressants are sometimes used alone or combined with a stimulant to treat ADHD.
Antidepressants may help all of the symptoms of ADHD and can be prescribed if a patient has bothersome side effects from stimulants.
Antidepressants can be helpful in combination with stimulants if a patient also has another condition, such as an anxiety disorder, depression, or another mood disorder.
Doctors and patients can work together to find the best medication, dose, or medication combination.
Adding psychotherapy to treat ADHD can help patients and their families to better cope with everyday problems.
Behavioral therapy is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events.
Behavioural therapy also teaches a person how to monitor his or her own behaviour give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting
Parents, teachers, and family members also can give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors and help establish clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines to help a person control his or her behavior.
Therapists may also teach children social skills, such as waiting their turn, sharing toys, asking for help, or responding to teasing. Learning to read facial expressions and the tone of voice in others and how to respond appropriately can also be part of social skills training.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy can also teach a person mindfulness techniques or meditation. So, a person learns how to be aware and accept one’s own thoughts and feelings to improve focus and concentration. The therapist also encourages the person with ADHD to adjust to the life changes that come with treatment, such as thinking before acting or resisting the urge to take unnecessary risks.
Family and marital therapy can help family members and spouses find better ways to handle disruptive behaviors, encourage behavior changes, and improve interactions with the patient.
Education and Training
Firstly, children and adults with ADHD need guidance and understanding from their parents, families, and teachers to reach their full potential and succeed. So, frustration, blame, and anger may have built up within a family before a child is diagnosed. However, parents and children may need special help to overcome negative feelings. Thus, mental health professionals can educate parents about ADHD and how it affects a family. In addition, they also will help the child and his or her parents develop new skills, attitudes, and ways of relating to each other.
Secondly, parenting skills training (behavioral parent management training) teaches parents the skills they need to encourage and reward positive behaviors in their children. Thus, it helps parents learn how to use a system of rewards and consequences to change a child’s behavior. So, parents are taught to give immediate and positive feedback for behaviors they want to encourage and ignore or redirect behaviors they want to discourage. Finally, they may also learn to structure situations in ways that support desired behavior.
In addition, stress management techniques can benefit parents of children with ADHD by increasing their ability to deal with frustration to respond calmly to their child’s behavior.
Support groups can help parents and families connect with others who have similar problems and concerns. Groups often meet regularly to share frustrations and successes, exchange information about recommended specialists and strategies, and talk with experts.
Tips to Help Kids and Adults with ADHD Stay Organized
Parents and teachers can help kids with ADHD stay organized and follow directions with tools such as:
Firstly, keeping a routine and a schedule. Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up time to bedtime.
In addition, include times for homework, outdoor play, and indoor activities. Also, keep the schedule on the refrigerator or a bulletin board in the kitchen.
Then, write changes on the schedule as far in advance as possible.
Organizing everyday items. As such, have a place for everything and keep everything in its place. This includes clothing, backpacks, and toys.
Accordingly, using homework and notebook organizers. Therefore, use organizers for school material and supplies. So, emphasize to your child the importance of writing down assignments and bringing home the necessary books.
Also, being clear and consistent. Children with ADHD need consistent rules they can understand and follow.
In addition, praising and rewarding children is helpful. Children with ADHD often receive and expect criticism. Look for good behavior, and praise it.
Indeed, a professional counselor or therapist can help an adult with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder learn how to organize his or her life with tools such as:
Making lists for different tasks and activities
Using a calendar for scheduling events
Using reminder notes
Assigning a special place for keys, bills, and paperwork
Breaking down large tasks into more manageable, smaller steps to complete each part of the task provides a sense of accomplishment.
Reading disorders occur when a person has trouble with any part of the reading process. Reading and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia. These disorders are present from a young age. Thus, usually result from specific differences in the way the brain processes language.
There are many different symptoms and types of reading disorders, and not everyone with a reading disorder has every symptom. People with reading disorders may have problems recognizing words that they already know and may also be poor spellers. Other symptoms may include the following:
Trouble with handwriting
Difficulty reading quickly
Problems reading with correct expression
Problems understanding the written word
Reading disorders are not a type of intellectual and development disorder. Also, they are not a sign of lower intelligence or unwillingness to learn. People with reading disorders may have other learning disabilities, too, including problems with writing or numbers. Visit learning disabilities for more information about these problems.
Types of Reading Disorders
Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person’s ability to read. Individuals with dyslexia typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, there are some common characteristics among people with dyslexia. They are difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. Dyslexia can be inherited in some families. Moreover, recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia. Examples of specific types of reading disorders include:
Word decoding. People who have difficulty sounding out written words; matching the letters to sounds to be able to read a word.
Lack of fluency. People who lack fluency have difficulty reading quickly, accurately, and with proper expression (if reading aloud).
Poor reading comprehension. People with poor reading comprehension have trouble understanding what they read.
A related problem is alexia (pronounced uh-LEK-see-uh), or an acquired inability to read. Unlike most reading disabilities, which are present from when a child starts to learn to read, people with alexia were once able to read. However, they lost the ability after a stroke or an injury to the area of the brain involved with reading.
How will I know if my child has a reading problem?
The news usually comes in one or more of three ways.
School feedback. If your child’s teacher alerts you to a problem, resist falling into the blame games. If the teacher asks, “Do you ever read to him at home?” don’t come back with, “Aren’t you teaching him to read at school? Whatever you’re doing isn’t working.”
Your child’s statements. The child may well make general or specific comments. Like “I don’t want to read.” or “I can’t do this”. “I don’t get what’s happening in this story.” More likely, your child will just express frustration. Strong resistance against practicing reading, including blanket statements like “Reading is dumb” is an obvious sign.
Behavior’s you can observe. Reluctance to be read to, getting stuck on most words in a sentence. And slow or no reaction when you ask a simple question. For example, “What is the sound of that letter?” Another warning sign would be if the child’s reading is very slow. Accuracy in early reading is much more important than speed. However, if you can wash and dry the dishes before the sentence is completed, fluency is a problem. Or you may notice that the child gets the beginning of the word but guesses at the rest of it. Like, reading “smoke” as “smile,” for instance—which suggests she is trying to memorize whole words. Instead of breaking them down to sound them out.
Can’t I just wait until the child gets to school, where they have teachers trained to teach reading?
You could, but it would be better if you did not. Practicing the components of reading in the home doesn’t mean you force reading before your child is ready to. However, you can help develop important skills without rushing the process. Also, the child who does practice those skills will do better when he does get to school and is ready to read in earnest. Studies show that having more of the component skills in place at age 5 predicts better school achievement at ages 7 and 15.
What do I do if I think my child has a reading problem?
Indeed, a reading evaluation can be very important. A trained specialist can identify weakness in any of the component skills and will know how to work on it. Bear in mind that the child’s negative reaction to reading alone will not necessarily show you where the problem is. Your best bet is to ask your child’s teacher, school psychologist, or principal to bring in a reading specialist. Or if you prefer to seek out help on your own, you can do your own search. Search for a reading specialist online or in the phone book.
Moreover, a little respectful tact in dealing with your child’s teacher may well be necessary. However, you’re not questioning the teacher’s competence or going over her head by consulting a specialist. Thus, reading is a well-developed area of educational specialization, with masters and doctoral level professionals. Hence, they can offer very focused assistance that goes beyond what can happen in the classroom. So, plan to work with the teacher as will any reading specialist your child ends up seeing.
However, there are more serious problems—auditory disorders, dyslexia, pervasive developmental disorder—that can lead to reading impairment. Thus, one reason to go to a specialist is that there are different strategies. Hence, these are associated with addressing each of the many causes of a reading problem.
What if my child can read, but just won’t? What if my child just has an attitude problem?
You can be certain of motivational problems only if all of the component skills are well established. So, as a parent, you probably cannot determine this on your own. However, if you’ve taken your child for a reading evaluation and problem is just motivational then you might try these. So, establish more reading routines and engage in more talking about reading at the dinner table and have the child select a book to read together at the bookstore; switch to engaging magazines or something else other than a book that has words to read; read stories connected to movies, and see the movies with the child.
My child is pulled out of class for an intensive reading program. If I enroll her in an outside program for a few weeks, will that bring her up to speed?
Nevertheless, a few weeks in an intensive reading program, all by itself, probably will not be enough. A program that is sustained and supported in the home is more likely to have staying power. Also, research suggests that much can be done to help the child and build the skills needed. In addition, that steady progress takes precedence over a quick fix. Therefore, notably the mundane game like activities I’ve discussed above will go far to improve reading and complement school activities. Thus, if you can start early, all the better. Then, you have the option, select day care, preschool, and kindergarten that emphasize sounding out, rhyming, and other pre-reading skills.